Mark 11 January, Psychology is a subject that offers a scientific explanation of how we feel, think and behave.
There are a number of ethical and legal issues that must be considered by supervisors and their supervisees. The topics of direct and vicarious liability, duty to warn, confidentiality, dual relationships, and informed consent will be discussed.
See the following links for the ethical standards related to supervision and training. Direct liability would be charged when the actions of a supervisor were themselves the cause of harm to a supervisee or a client for instance, if a supervisor suggested and documented an intervention that was determined to be the cause of harm.
The supervisor does not have to actually carry out the intervention, but if the supervisee follows the suggestion of a supervisor and this results in harm — this is direct liability. Vicarious liability is being held liable for the actions of the supervisee when these were not suggested, or even known, by the supervisor.
Therefore, if a supervisory relationship exists, the supervisor can potentially be held liable for any negligent acts of the supervisee. Duty to Warn The duty to warn is as relevant for supervisors as counselors working directly with clients.
The supervisor has a responsibility to advise the supervisee of conditions under which it is appropriate to warn an intended victim. Confidentiality Supervision allows for third-party discussion of therapy situations. It is important to remember that the type and depth of discussion allowed in supervision, is unethical in other situations.
Supervisees must keep confidential all client information except of the purposes of supervision. It is sound practice to keep explicit identifying information confidential for instance, use only first names and reveal few specific demographics.
Dual Relationships There are two major categories of dual relationships: Sexual Dual Relationships There are four categories of sexual relationships: Sexual Attraction Sexual attraction is not an uncommon occurrence in supervision relationships.
Unfortunately, however, there is little attention to how to openly address and discuss the implications of the attraction — leading to successful resolve of the issue. Because acting on an attraction poses serious ethical dilemmas, addressing the attraction in supervision or through consultation with other professionals is vital.
Sexual Harassment Unlike sexual attraction, sexual harassment is a clear abuse of power by the supervisor and is never acceptable.
Sexual harassment can leave the supervisee feeling violated, vulnerable and confused. Consensual but Hidden Sexual Relationships Results of studies indicate that the majority of sexual relationships between supervisor and supervisee fall in this category.
Intimate Romantic Relationships There is no distinction in the literature between relationships that occur within supervision, and those that begin there. It is understood that intimate relationship may develop when adults work together in the world of therapy.
The general consensus about sexual dual relationships is that there is much more potential for harm and negative outcomes, than the potential for good or even acceptable outcomes.
The secrecy that typically occurs in the development of dual relationships is an important signal that there is a strong potential for unethical conduct and harm.
Nonsexual Dual Relationships There is a general consensus that dual relationships between supervisors and supervisees particularly in counselor education programs are inevitable. Unlike therapy relationships, persons who work together will share other experiences with each other.
In counselor education programs, faculty members may be instructors, supervisors, academic advisors, personal confidants, and mentors.
The potential for negative outcomes, as a result of dual relationships, centers on the power differential between the two parties. Some authors acknowledge that dual relationships are not tantamount to negative outcomes Indeed, with appropriate attention to the power differentiation, there can be great flexibility in non-sexual dual relationships.
While there is the potential for harm, there are also training and personal benefits. These relationships tend to attract more confusion than harm. Supervisors have a responsibility to openly acknowledge and discuss the management of the multiple relationships that may exist between supervisor and supervisee.
Supervisees are encouraged to ask for clarifications regarding any confusion resulting from dual relationships.
Informed consent is the best defense against the difficult and confusing issues that arise in supervision. Supervisors have an obligation to determine that clients have been informed by the supervisee regarding the parameters of therapy. Clients must not only be aware of therapeutic procedures, but also of supervision procedures.Perhaps the greatest clinical and ethical challenge of supervision is that the supervisor must attend to the best interests of the client and supervisee simultaneously.
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developmental e. Use of social networking websites by clinical supervisors, counselors, and clients 3. Emailing clients 4. Conducting internet searches on clients and/or supervisees 5.
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Otterbein offers a range of undergraduate degree programs for traditional students, adult students, international students and transfer students.
The Department offers a research oriented program in Clinical Science. Both the Clinical Science and Experimental Psychopathology programs are geared to training people primarily for research careers rather than psychotherapy careers.