Armando has worked as one of the partners at Globac Holding AG in Liechenstein, where he led in the formulation and control of international financial operations with structured and leveraged with collaterals, cash and Bank guarantee. He also advises in areas of trading, foreign exchange, and forex in prominent European and Hong Kong financial markets. During the past three decades, he has served as a business partner or held senior positions in several companies and financial groups in: Portugal, Suisse, and Brazil with a keen focus in crypto-currency markets in the last five years.
I'll give three examples that cover the common cases. This includes a "bit set" and a "bit clear" instruction. These, if you read the manual carefully, actually internally perform a read-modify-write cycle by themselves. They do have the advantage of being atomic operations, since as single instructions they cannot be interrupted.
You will also notice that they take longer than individual read or write instructions, but less time than using three instructions for the job see below.
If you write in C: Making it atomic or even SMP-safe is beyond the scope of this answer - there are special instructions and techniques for it.
Why you would use these for "embedded" is beyond me, but they are a half-way house between the other two examples.
I forget whether there is a single-instruction in-memory bit-set and bit-clear on x If not, then see the RISC section above, it just takes only two instructions instead of three because x86 can load and modify in one instruction.
Assuming there are such instructions, they also need to internally load and store the register as well as modifying it. Modern versions will explcitly break the instruction into the three RISC-like operations internally.
The oddity is that x86 unlike the HC08 can be interrupted on the memory bus in mid-transaction by a bus master, not just by a conventional CPU interrupt. So you can manually add a LOCK prefix to an instruction that needs to do multiple memory cycles to complete, as in this case.
You won't get this from plain C though.If you have to modify a subset of the bits in a word, and the architecture only supports word level read/write, you have to read the bits that must not change to know what to write . What’s up i am kavin, its my first time to commenting anyplace, when i read this post i thought i could also make comment due to this brilliant article.
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