Sometime around BC in the lower Ganges valley in eastern India a coin called a punchmarked Karshapana was created. It was made by taking a flat, though often irregularly shaped, piece of silver, cutting it to the proper weight, then applying a series of punches to the front of it.

He wrote the Katyayana Sulba Sutra, which presented much geometryincluding the general Pythagorean theorem and a computation of the square root of 2 correct Tradition culture and issues facing india five decimal places.

Jain mathematicians are important historically as crucial links between the mathematics of the Vedic period and that of the "classical period. In particular, their fascination with the enumeration of very large numbers and infinities led them to classify numbers into three classes: Not content with a simple notion of infinity, they went on to define five different types of infinity: In addition, Jain mathematicians devised notations for simple powers and exponents of numbers like squares and cubes, which enabled them to define simple algebraic equations beejganita samikaran.

Jain mathematicians were apparently also the first to use the word shunya literally void in Sanskrit to refer to zero. More than a millennium later, their appellation became the English word "zero" after a tortuous journey of translations and transliterations from India to Europe.

Important Jain mathematicians included Bhadrabahu d. Memorisation and recitation was also used to transmit philosophical and literary works, as well as treatises on ritual and grammar.

Modern scholars of ancient India have noted the "truly remarkable achievements of the Indian pandits who have preserved enormously bulky texts orally for millennia. The texts were subsequently "proof-read" by comparing the different recited versions.

One method of constructing the altar was to divide one side of the square into three equal parts using a cord or rope, to next divide the transverse or perpendicular side into seven equal parts, and thereby sub-divide the square into 21 congruent rectangles.

The bricks were then designed to be of the shape of the constituent rectangle and the layer was created. To form the next layer, the same formula was used, but the bricks were arranged transversely.

After dividing the quadri-lateral in seven, one divides the transverse [cord] in three. In another layer one places the [bricks] North-pointing.

All these inferences are made by the officiant as he recalls the formula from his memory. Consequently, many mathematical works began to be written down in manuscripts that were then copied and re-copied from generation to generation. India today is estimated to have about thirty million manuscripts, the largest body of handwritten reading material anywhere in the world.

The literate culture of Indian science goes back to at least the fifth century B.

It was probably a matter of style of exposition. Working karana of the solution. These became rare by the 13th century, derivations or proofs being favoured by then. The students then worked through the topics of the prose commentary by writing and drawing diagrams on chalk- and dust-boards i.

The latter activity, a staple of mathematical work, was to later prompt mathematician-astronomer, Brahmagupta fl. Both scripts had numeral symbols and numeral systems, which were initially not based on a place-value system.

Indians may well have learned of these decimal place value "rod numerals" from Chinese Buddhist pilgrims or other travelers, or they may have developed the concept independently from their earlier non-place-value system; no documentary evidence survives to confirm either conclusion.

Of unknown authorship and now preserved in the Bodleian Library in Oxford Universitythe manuscript has been variously datedâ€”sometimes as early as the "early centuries of the Christian era. Its mathematical content consists of rules and examples, written in verse, together with prose commentaries, which include solutions to the examples.

In addition, there is a handful of geometric problems including problems about volumes of irregular solids.

The Bakhshali manuscript also "employs a decimal place value system with a dot for zero. One example from Fragment IIIv is the following: One merchant has seven asava horses, a second has nine haya horses, and a third has ten camels. They are equally well off in the value of their animals if each gives two animals, one to each of the others.

Find the price of each animal and the total value for the animals possessed by each merchant. It is not known how fragments from different centuries came to be packaged together. Their contributions would spread to Asia, the Middle East, and eventually to Europe.

Unlike Vedic mathematics, their works included both astronomical and mathematical contributions.

As explained earlier, the main texts were composed in Sanskrit verse, and were followed by prose commentaries.Outsourcing to India is no walk in the park. The more advanced your project/tasks the more difficult it will be to succeed. In other words, for a basic website design these points will be easier to overcome and maybe some not even an issue.

But as your projects get more complex these points will be . COINS OF INDIA, PAKISTAN, BANGLADESH, NEPAL & BHUTAN FROM ANCIENT TIMES TO THE PRESENT WORLD'S FIRST COINS FROM INDIA India developed some of the world's first coins. All the latest news, reviews, pictures and video on culture, the arts and entertainment.

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